Four point system is a fabric quality control system. All manufacturing companies are not vertically integrated(all operations under one umbrella), there is a large possibility of involving more than one section and units to convert fibre to garments or the end products. One company manufacture the yarn and others are knitting or weaving to convert yarn into the fabric and fabric wet processing is different and some another company may be buying fabric to produce garments.
The fabric is a raw material for any garment manufacturing unit/company and they always want to avoid second quality garments and produce maximum garments out of the received fabric. Due to certain limitation and unavoidable defects, garment companies accept those defects to an agreed limit.
Four point system helps to determine the quality and acceptability of fabric for the further use i.e manufacturing of end products. The four-point system involves fabric examination, inspecting, and grading with penalty points. The system helps to pass or fail the fabric rolls and provide factual data, The system is not subjective; it is more practical than conventional visual inspection due to fair and reasonable approach. Thus the grading system is widely accepted and recognized. The system is useful to ensure quality and avoid any discrepancies.
Four-Point System: Four-Point System, a standard established under ASTM D5430 – 07(2011).
The penalty points are based on the size of the defects. The four-point system assigns 1, 2, 3 and 4 penalty points according to the size, quality, and significance of the defect. The defects are measured by length.
- Up to 75 mm 1point
- 75mm >150mm 2 points
- 150mm >230 mm 3 points
- More than 230mm 4 points
And fabric quality is assessed on the grading points in per 100 square yards of the fabric. Buyers define their number for acceptance, but as per ASTM, the acceptable limits are 40 per 100 square yards. Or different fabric qualities may have a different number for recognition like 20, 30, 35 and 40.
- Maximum of 4 points can be given to one linear yard by measuring the size of the imperfections.
- Four points can be given for each linear yard when a defect is running continuously along the length of the fabric.
- Any holes are evaluated by size(Less than 1 inch 1 point and more than 1 inch 4 points.